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Database Access with PostgreSQL on GCP Cloud SQL

Setting up Database Access with GCP Cloud SQL

Setting up Database Access with GCP Cloud SQL

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GCP Cloud SQL PostgreSQL

Enable Cloud SQL IAM authentication

Teleport uses IAM database authentication with Cloud SQL PostgreSQL instances.

If you're creating a new PostgreSQL instance, make sure to add the cloudsql.iam_authentication database flag under "Customize your instance / Flags" section:

Enable IAM Authentication

To check whether IAM authentication is enabled for an existing Cloud SQL instance, look for the flag on the Configuration panel on the instance's Overview page:

Check IAM Authentication

If it isn't enabled, you can add this flag using the "Edit configuration" dialog at the bottom of the Configuration panel. Note, changing this setting may require a database instance reboot.

Create service account for database

Teleport uses service accounts to connect to Cloud SQL databases.

Go to the IAM & Admin Service Accounts page and create a new service account:

Create Service Account

Press "Create".

On the second step grant this service account the "Cloud SQL Instance User" role which will allow it to connect to Cloud SQL instances using IAM token for authentication:

Grant Cloud SQL Instance User to Service Account

Press "Done".

Now go back to the Users page of your Cloud SQL instance and add a new user account. In the sidebar, choose "Cloud IAM" authentication type and add the service account you've just created:

Add Cloud SQL User Account

Press "Add" and your Users table should look similar to this:

Cloud SQL User Accounts Table

See Creating and managing IAM users in Google Cloud documentation for more info.

Create service account for Teleport Database service

The final part of GCP configuration is to create a service account for the Teleport Database service with the following IAM roles:

  • "Service Account Token Creator": will allow Database service to generate IAM auth tokens when connecting to the database as the service account user we created above.
  • "Cloud SQL Viewer": will allow Database service to automatically download your Cloud SQL instance root CA certificate.

If creating a new one, go to the Service Accounts page and create another service account:

Create Service Account

Assign it the "Service Account Token Creator" role:

Grant Service Account Token Creator to Service Account

Service account permissions

"Service Account Token Creator" and "Cloud SQL Viewer" IAM roles include more permissions than the database agent needs. To further restrict the service account, you can create a role that includes only the following permission:

# Used to generate IAM auth tokens when connecting to a database instance.
# Used to auto-download the instance's root CA certificate.

Once created, go to that service account's Keys tab and create a new key:

Service Account Keys

Make sure to choose JSON format:

Service Account New Key

Save the file, your Teleport Database Service will need it to be able to generate IAM auth tokens.

Gather Cloud SQL instance information

To connect a Cloud SQL database to Teleport, you'll need to gather a few pieces of information about the instance.

  • GCP Project ID.

You can normally see it in the organization view at the top of the GCP dashboard.

  • Cloud SQL instance ID.

The instance ID is the name of your Cloud SQL instance shown at the top of the Overview page:

Instance ID

  • Cloud SQL instance endpoint.

You will use the instance's public IP address to connect to it. It can be viewed on the "Connect to this instance" panel on the Overview page:

Instance Public IP

  • Cloud SQL instance root certificate.

The instance's root certificate is required so Teleport can validate the certificate presented by the database instance. You can download server-ca.pem file from the Connections tab under Security section:

Instance Root Certificate

Setup Teleport Auth and Proxy services

Teleport Database Access for Cloud SQL PostgreSQL is available starting from 6.2 release.

Download the latest version of Teleport for your platform from our downloads page and follow the installation instructions.

Teleport requires a valid TLS certificate to operate and can fetch one automatically using Let's Encrypt ACME protocol. We will assume that you have configured DNS records for and * to point to the Teleport node.

Generate Teleport config with ACME enabled:

$ teleport configure --acme [email protected] -o file
Web Proxy Port

Teleport uses TLS-ALPN-01 ACME challenge to validate certificate requests which only works on port 443. As such, in order to use ACME for certificate management, web proxy needs to be accessible on port 443.

Start Teleport Auth and Proxy services:

$ sudo teleport start

Database agent requires a valid auth token to connect to the cluster. Generate one by running the following command against your Teleport auth server and save it in /tmp/token on the node which will be running the database agent:

$ tctl tokens add --type=db

Create user

Create local Teleport user with the built-in access role:

tctl users add --roles=access alice

The access role allows users to see all connected database servers, but database names and accounts are restricted to the user's db_names and db_users traits. Normally, these traits come from the identity provider. For the local user you've just created you can update them manually to allow it to connect to the postgres database as a [email protected]<project-id>.iam database service account.

First, export the user resource:

tctl get users/alice > alice.yaml

Update the resource to include the following traits:

  # Database account names the user will be allowed to use.
  # Note: replace <project-id> with your GCP project ID.
  - [email protected]<project-id>.iam
  # Database names the user will be allowed to connect to.
  - postgres

Update the user:

tctl create alice.yaml -f

For more detailed information about database access controls see RBAC documentation.

Setup Teleport Database service

Below is an example of a database service configuration file that proxies a single Cloud SQL PostgreSQL database:

  data_dir: /var/lib/teleport-db
  nodename: test
  # Proxy address to connect to. Note that it has to be the proxy address
  # because database service always connects to the cluster over reverse
  # tunnel.
  enabled: "yes"
  # This section contains definitions of all databases proxied by this
  # service, can contain multiple items.
    # Name of the database proxy instance, used to reference in CLI.
  - name: "cloudsql"
    # Free-form description of the database proxy instance.
    description: "GCP Cloud SQL PostgreSQL"
    # Database protocol.
    protocol: "postgres"
    # Database endpoint. For Cloud SQL use instance's public IP address.
    uri: ""
    # Path to Cloud SQL instance root certificate you downloaded above.
    ca_cert_file: /path/to/cloudsql/instance/root.pem
    # GCP specific configuration when connecting Cloud SQL instance.
      # GCP project ID.
      project_id: "<project-id>"
      # Cloud SQL instance ID.
      instance_id: "test"
    # Labels to assign to the database, used in RBAC.
      env: dev
  enabled: "no"
  enabled: "no"
  enabled: "no"

A single Teleport process can run multiple different services, for example multiple database access proxies as well as running other services such an SSH service or an application access proxy.

Start the database service:

teleport start --config=/path/to/teleport-db.yaml --token=/tmp/token

GCP credentials

Teleport Database Service must have credentials of teleport-db-service GCP service account we created above in order to be able to generate IAM auth tokens.

The easiest way to ensure that is to set GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable to point to the JSON credentials file you downloaded earlier.

See Authenticating as a service account in Google Cloud documentation for more details.


Once the database service has joined the cluster, login to see the available databases:

tsh login --user=alice
tsh db ls

Name Description Labels

-------- ------------------------ --------

cloudsql GCP Cloud SQL PostgreSQL env=dev

Note that you will only be able to see databases your role has access to. See RBAC section for more details.

To connect to a particular database server, first retrieve credentials from Teleport using tsh db login command:

$ tsh db login cloudsql

You can be logged into multiple databases simultaneously.

You can optionally specify the database name and the user to use by default when connecting to the database instance:

tsh db login [email protected]<project-id>.iam --db-name=postgres cloudsql
What database user name to use?

When connecting to the database, use the name of the database service account that you added as IAM database user above, minus the suffix. The database user name is shown on the Users page of your Cloud SQL instance.

Once logged in, connect to the database:

tsh db connect aurora

The psql command-line client should be available in PATH in order to be able to connect.

To log out of the database and remove credentials:

Remove credentials for a particular database instance.

tsh db logout cloudsql

Remove credentials for all database instances.

tsh db logout
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