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Database Access with PostgreSQL on GCP Cloud SQL

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Setting up Database Access with GCP Cloud SQL

Setting up Database Access with GCP Cloud SQL

Length: 12:32

This guide will help you to:

  • Install Teleport 11.0.3.
  • Set up Teleport to access your PostgreSQL on Google Cloud SQL.
  • Connect to your databases through Teleport.

Teleport Database Access CloudSQL Self-Hosted

Prerequisites

  • Google Cloud account
  • Command-line client psql installed and added to your system's PATH environment variable.
  • A host, e.g., a Compute Engine instance, where you will run the Teleport Database Service
  • The tctl and tsh client tools version >= 11.0.3.

    tctl version

    Teleport v11.0.3 go1.19

    tsh version

    Teleport v11.0.3 go1.19

    See Installation for details.

  • A host where you will install the Teleport Auth Service and Proxy Service.

  • A registered domain name.

  • The tctl and tsh client tools version >= 11.0.3, which you can download by visiting the customer portal.

    tctl version

    Teleport v11.0.3 go1.19

    tsh version

    Teleport v11.0.3 go1.19

  • A host where you will install the Teleport Auth Service and Proxy Service.

  • A registered domain name.

  • The tctl and tsh client tools version >= 10.3.8.

    You can download these from Teleport Cloud Downloads.

    tctl version

    Teleport v10.3.8 go1.19

    tsh version

    Teleport v10.3.8 go1.19

Step 1/7. Enable Cloud SQL IAM authentication

Teleport uses IAM database authentication with Cloud SQL PostgreSQL instances.

If you're creating a new PostgreSQL instance, make sure to add the cloudsql.iam_authentication database flag under "Customize your instance / Flags" section:

Enable IAM Authentication

To check whether IAM authentication is enabled for an existing Cloud SQL instance, look for the flag on the Configuration panel on the instance's Overview page:

Check IAM Authentication

If it isn't enabled, you can add this flag using the "Edit configuration" dialog at the bottom of the Configuration panel. Note, changing this setting may require a database instance reboot.

Step 2/7. Create a service account for the database

Teleport uses service accounts to connect to Cloud SQL databases.

Create a service account

Go to the IAM & Admin Service Accounts page and create a new service account:

Create Service Account

Press "Create".

Grant permissions

On the second step grant this service account the "Cloud SQL Instance User" role which will allow it to connect to Cloud SQL instances using IAM token for authentication:

Grant Cloud SQL Instance User to Service Account

Press "Done".

Configure authentication for your service account

Now go back to the Users page of your Cloud SQL instance and add a new user account. In the sidebar, choose "Cloud IAM" authentication type and add the service account you've just created:

Add Cloud SQL User Account

Press "Add" and your Users table should look similar to this:

Cloud SQL User Accounts Table

See Creating and managing IAM users in Google Cloud documentation for more info.

Step 3/7. Create a service account for Teleport Database Service

The final part of GCP configuration is to create a service account for the Teleport Database Service.

Create a service account

Go to the Service Accounts page and create a service account:

Create Service Account

Grant permissions

Assign the Service Account the following IAM roles:

  • "Service Account Token Creator" will allow the Database Service to generate IAM authentication tokens when connecting to the database as the service account user we created above.
  • Either "Cloud SQL Viewer" or "Cloud SQL Admin":
    • "Cloud SQL Viewer" will allow the Database Service to automatically download your Cloud SQL instance's root CA certificate, but does not support client certificate authentication.
    • "Cloud SQL Admin" will allow the Database Service to automatically download your Cloud SQL instance's root CA certificate and generate an ephemeral client certificate when the GCP instance is configured to "Allow only SSL connections."

Assign it the "Service Account Token Creator" role:

Grant Service Account Token Creator to Service Account

Service account permissions

"Service Account Token Creator", "Cloud SQL Viewer", and "Cloud SQL Admin" IAM roles include more permissions than the Database Service needs. To further restrict the service account, you can create a role that includes only the following permissions:

# Used to generate IAM auth tokens when connecting to a database instance.
iam.serviceAccounts.getAccessToken
# Used to auto-download the instance's root CA certificate.
cloudsql.instances.get
# Used to generate an ephemeral client certificate when the GCP instance
# is configured to "Allow only SSL connections." (optional)
cloudsql.sslCerts.createEphemeral

Create a key for the service account

Once created, go to that service account's Keys tab and create a new key:

Service Account Keys

Make sure to choose JSON format:

Service Account New Key

Save the file. The Teleport Database Service will need it to be able to generate IAM auth tokens.

Step 4/7. Gather Cloud SQL instance information

To connect a Cloud SQL database to Teleport, you'll need to gather a few pieces of information about the instance.

  • GCP Project ID.

You can normally see it in the organization view at the top of the GCP dashboard.

  • Cloud SQL instance ID.

The instance ID is the name of your Cloud SQL instance shown at the top of the Overview page:

Instance ID

  • Cloud SQL instance endpoint.

You will use the instance's public IP address to connect to it. It can be viewed on the "Connect to this instance" panel on the Overview page:

Instance Public IP

  • Cloud SQL instance root certificate.

The instance's root certificate is required so Teleport can validate the certificate presented by the database instance. You can download server-ca.pem file from the Connections tab under Security section:

Instance Root Certificate

Step 5/7. Set up the Teleport Auth and Proxy services

Teleport Database Access for Cloud SQL PostgreSQL is available starting from the 6.2 Teleport release.

On the host where you will run the Auth Service and Proxy Service, download the latest version of Teleport for your platform from our downloads page and follow the installation instructions.

Teleport requires a valid TLS certificate to operate and can fetch one automatically using Let's Encrypt's ACME protocol. Before Let's Encrypt can issue a TLS certificate for the Teleport Proxy host's domain, the ACME protocol must verify that an HTTPS server is reachable on port 443 of the host.

You can configure the Teleport Proxy service to complete the Let's Encrypt verification process when it starts up.

Run the following teleport configure command, where tele.example.com is the domain name of your Teleport cluster and [email protected] is an email address used for notifications (you can use any domain):

teleport configure --acme [email protected] --cluster-name=tele.example.com > /etc/teleport.yaml

The --acme, --acme-email, and --cluster-name flags will add the following settings to your Teleport configuration file:

proxy_service:
  enabled: "yes"
  web_listen_addr: :443
  public_addr: tele.example.com:443
  acme:
    enabled: "yes"
    email: [email protected]

Port 443 on your Teleport Proxy Service host must allow traffic from all sources.

Next, start the Teleport Auth and Proxy Services:

sudo teleport start

If you do not have a Teleport Cloud account, use our signup form to get started. Teleport Cloud manages instances of the Proxy Service and Auth Service, and automatically issues and renews the required TLS certificate.

To connect to Teleport, log in to your cluster using tsh, then use tctl remotely:

tsh login --proxy=teleport.example.com [email protected]
tctl status

Cluster teleport.example.com

Version 11.0.3

CA pin sha256:abdc1245efgh5678abdc1245efgh5678abdc1245efgh5678abdc1245efgh5678

You can run subsequent tctl commands in this guide on your local machine.

For full privileges, you can also run tctl commands on your Auth Service host.

To connect to Teleport, log in to your cluster using tsh, then use tctl remotely:

tsh login --proxy=myinstance.teleport.sh [email protected]
tctl status

Cluster myinstance.teleport.sh

Version 10.3.8

CA pin sha256:sha-hash-here

You must run subsequent tctl commands in this guide on your local machine.

The Database Service requires a valid auth token to connect to the cluster. Generate one by running the following command against your Teleport Auth Service and save it in /tmp/token on the node that will run the Database Service:

tctl tokens add --type=db

Install Teleport on the host where you will run the Teleport Database Service:

Download Teleport's PGP public key

sudo curl https://apt.releases.teleport.dev/gpg \ -o /usr/share/keyrings/teleport-archive-keyring.asc

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport APT repository for v11. You'll need to update this

file for each major release of Teleport.

Note: if using a fork of Debian or Ubuntu you may need to use '$ID_LIKE'

and the codename your distro was forked from instead of '$ID' and '$VERSION_CODENAME'.

Supported versions are listed here: https://github.com/gravitational/teleport/blob/master/build.assets/tooling/cmd/build-os-package-repos/runners.go#L42-L67

echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/teleport-archive-keyring.asc] \ https://apt.releases.teleport.dev/${ID?} ${VERSION_CODENAME?} stable/v11" \ | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/teleport.list > /dev/null

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install teleport

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport YUM repository for v11. You'll need to update this

file for each major release of Teleport.

Note: if using a fork of RHEL/CentOS or Amazon Linux you may need to use '$ID_LIKE'

and the codename your distro was forked from instead of '$ID'

Supported versions are listed here: https://github.com/gravitational/teleport/blob/master/build.assets/tooling/cmd/build-os-package-repos/runners.go#L133-L153

sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo $(rpm --eval "https://yum.releases.teleport.dev/$ID/$VERSION_ID/Teleport/%{_arch}/stable/v11/teleport.repo")
sudo yum install teleport

Tip: Add /usr/local/bin to path used by sudo (so 'sudo tctl users add' will work as per the docs)

echo "Defaults secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin" > /etc/sudoers.d/secure_path

Optional: Using DNF on newer distributions

$ sudo dnf config-manager --add-repo https://rpm.releases.teleport.dev/teleport.repo

$ sudo dnf install teleport

curl https://get.gravitational.com/teleport-v11.0.3-linux-amd64-bin.tar.gz.sha256

<checksum> <filename>

curl -O https://get.gravitational.com/teleport-v11.0.3-linux-amd64-bin.tar.gz
shasum -a 256 teleport-v11.0.3-linux-amd64-bin.tar.gz

Verify that the checksums match

tar -xzf teleport-v11.0.3-linux-amd64-bin.tar.gz
cd teleport
sudo ./install
curl https://get.gravitational.com/teleport-v11.0.3-linux-arm-bin.tar.gz.sha256

<checksum> <filename>

curl -O https://get.gravitational.com/teleport-v11.0.3-linux-arm-bin.tar.gz
shasum -a 256 teleport-v11.0.3-linux-arm-bin.tar.gz

Verify that the checksums match

tar -xzf teleport-v11.0.3-linux-arm-bin.tar.gz
cd teleport
sudo ./install
curl https://get.gravitational.com/teleport-v11.0.3-linux-arm64-bin.tar.gz.sha256

<checksum> <filename>

curl -O https://get.gravitational.com/teleport-v11.0.3-linux-arm64-bin.tar.gz
shasum -a 256 teleport-v11.0.3-linux-arm64-bin.tar.gz

Verify that the checksums match

tar -xzf teleport-v11.0.3-linux-arm64-bin.tar.gz
cd teleport
sudo ./install

Using this APT repo may result in breaking upgrades upon "apt upgrade" as all major versions will be

published under the same component. We recommend following the instructions in the

"Debian/Ubuntu (DEB)" tab instead.

Download Teleport's PGP public key

sudo curl https://deb.releases.teleport.dev/teleport-pubkey.asc \ -o /usr/share/keyrings/teleport-archive-keyring.asc

Add the Teleport APT repository

echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/teleport-archive-keyring.asc] https://deb.releases.teleport.dev/ stable main" \ | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/teleport.list > /dev/null

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install teleport
sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo https://rpm.releases.teleport.dev/teleport.repo
sudo yum install teleport

Optional: Using DNF on newer distributions

$ sudo dnf config-manager --add-repo https://rpm.releases.teleport.dev/teleport.repo

$ sudo dnf install teleport

Create a user

Tip

To modify an existing user to provide access to the Database Access service, see Database Access Access Controls

Create a local Teleport user with the built-in access role:

tctl users add \ --roles=access \ --db-users=\* \ --db-names=\* \ alice
FlagDescription
--rolesList of roles to assign to the user. The builtin access role allows them to connect to any database server registered with Teleport.
--db-usersList of database usernames the user will be allowed to use when connecting to the databases. A wildcard allows any user.
--db-namesList of logical databases (aka schemas) the user will be allowed to connect to within a database server. A wildcard allows any database.
Warning

Database names are only enforced for PostgreSQL and MongoDB databases.

For more detailed information about database access controls and how to restrict access see RBAC documentation.

Step 6/7. Set up the Teleport Database service

Below is an example of a Database Service configuration file that proxies a single Cloud SQL PostgreSQL database:

version: v3
teleport:
  data_dir: /var/lib/teleport-db
  nodename: test
  # Proxy address to connect to. Note that it has to be the proxy address
  # because the Database Service always connects to the cluster over a reverse
  # tunnel.
  proxy_server: teleport.example.com:3080
db_service:
  enabled: "yes"
  # This section contains definitions of all databases proxied by this
  # service, can contain multiple items.
  databases:
    # Name of the database proxy instance, used to reference in CLI.
  - name: "cloudsql"
    # Free-form description of the database proxy instance.
    description: "GCP Cloud SQL PostgreSQL"
    # Database protocol.
    protocol: "postgres"
    # Database endpoint. For Cloud SQL use instance's public IP address.
    uri: "35.1.2.3:5432"
    # Path to Cloud SQL instance root certificate you downloaded above.
    ca_cert_file: /path/to/cloudsql/instance/root.pem
    # GCP specific configuration when connecting Cloud SQL instance.
    gcp:
      # GCP project ID.
      project_id: "<project-id>"
      # Cloud SQL instance ID.
      instance_id: "test"
    # Labels to assign to the database, used in RBAC.
    static_labels:
      env: dev
auth_service:
  enabled: "no"
ssh_service:
  enabled: "no"
proxy_service:
  enabled: "no"

A single Teleport process can run multiple different services, for example multiple Database Access instances as well as other services such the SSH Service or Application Service.

Start the Database Service:

teleport start --config=/path/to/teleport-db.yaml --token=/tmp/token

GCP credentials

The Teleport Database Service must have credentials of teleport-db-service GCP service account we created above in order to be able to generate IAM auth tokens.

The easiest way to ensure that is to set the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable to point to the JSON credentials file you downloaded earlier.

See Authenticating as a service account in the Google Cloud documentation for more details.

Step 7/7. Connect

Once the Database Service has joined the cluster, log in to see the available databases:

tsh login --proxy=teleport.example.com --user=alice
tsh db ls

Name Description Labels

-------- ------------------------ --------

cloudsql GCP Cloud SQL PostgreSQL env=dev

Note that you will only be able to see databases your role has access to. See our RBAC guide for more details.

To retrieve credentials for a database and connect to it:

$ tsh db connect cloudsql

You can optionally specify the database name and the user to use by default when connecting to the database instance:

tsh db connect [email protected]<project-id>.iam --db-name=postgres cloudsql
What database user name to use?

When connecting to the database, use the name of the database service account that you added as an IAM database user above, minus the .gserviceaccount.com suffix. The database user name is shown on the Users page of your Cloud SQL instance.

To log out of the database and remove credentials:

Remove credentials for a particular database instance.

tsh db logout cloudsql

Remove credentials for all database instances.

tsh db logout