Scaling Privileged Access for Modern Infrastructure: Real-World Insights
Apr 25
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Database Access with Oracle

Teleport can provide secure access to Oracle via the Teleport Database Service. This allows for fine-grained access control through Teleport's RBAC.

In this guide, you will:

  1. Configure an Oracle with mutual TLS authentication.
  2. Join the Oracle database to your Teleport cluster.
  3. Connect to the Oracle database via the Teleport Database Service.

Prerequisites

  • Self-hosted Oracle server instance 18c or later.
  • The sqlcl Oracle client installed and added to your system's PATH environment variable or any GUI client that supports JDBC Oracle thin client.

Step 1/6. Create a Teleport token and user

The Database Service requires a valid auth token to connect to the cluster. Generate one by running the following command against your Teleport Auth Service and save it in /tmp/token on the node that will run the Database Service:

tctl tokens add --type=db
Tip

To modify an existing user to provide access to the Database Service, see Database Access Access Controls

Create a local Teleport user with the built-in access and requester roles:

tctl users add \ --roles=access,requester \ --db-users=\* \ --db-names=\* \ alice
FlagDescription
--rolesList of roles to assign to the user. The builtin access role allows them to connect to any database server registered with Teleport.
--db-usersList of database usernames the user will be allowed to use when connecting to the databases. A wildcard allows any user.
--db-namesList of logical databases (aka schemas) the user will be allowed to connect to within a database server. A wildcard allows any database.
Warning

Database names are only enforced for PostgreSQL and MongoDB databases.

For more detailed information about database access controls and how to restrict access see RBAC documentation.

Step 2/6. Create a certificate/key pair and Teleport Oracle Wallet

Teleport uses mutual TLS authentication with self-hosted databases. These databases must be configured with Teleport's certificate authority to be able to verify client certificates. They also need a certificate/key pair that Teleport can verify.

If you are using Teleport Cloud, your Teleport user must be allowed to impersonate the system role Db in order to be able to generate the database certificate.

Include the following allow rule in in your Teleport Cloud user's role:

allow:
  impersonate:
    users: ["Db"]
    roles: ["Db"]

Follow the instructions below to generate TLS credentials for your database.

Export Teleport's certificate authority and a generated certificate/key pair

for host db.example.com with a 3-month validity period.

tctl auth sign --format=oracle --host=db.example.com --out=server --ttl=2190h

In this example, db.example.com is the hostname where the Teleport Database Service can reach the Oracle server.

TTL

We recommend using a shorter TTL, but keep mind that you'll need to update the database server certificate before it expires to not lose the ability to connect. Pick the TTL value that best fits your use-case.

If tctl finds the Orapki tool in your local environment, the tctl auth sign --format=oracle --host=db.example.com --out=server --ttl=2190h command will produce an Oracle Wallet and instructions how to configure the Oracle TCPS listener with Teleport Oracle Wallet. Otherwise the tctl auth sign --format=oracle command will produce a p12 certificate and instructions on how to create an Oracle Wallet on your Oracle Database instance.

Warning

If copying these files to your Oracle server, ensure the cert file permissions are readable by the oracle user.

Step 3/6. Configure Oracle Database

In order to enable the Teleport Oracle integration you will need to configure the TCPS Oracle listener and use the Teleport Oracle Wallet created in the previous step.

Align your listener.ora Oracle configuration file and add the following entries:

LISTENER =
  (DESCRIPTION_LIST =
    (DESCRIPTION =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCPS)(HOST = 0.0.0.0)(PORT = 2484))
    )
  )

WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE = (METHOD = FILE)(METHOD_DATA = (DIRECTORY = /path/to/oracleWalletDir)))
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = TRUE

Additionally, you will need to extend your sqlnet.ora Oracle configuration:

WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE = (METHOD = FILE)(METHOD_DATA = (DIRECTORY = /path/to/oracleWalletDir)))
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = TRUE
SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES = (TCPS)
Tip

You will need to reload Oracle Listener lsnrctl reload after updating the listener.ora configuration file.

Additionally, your Oracle Database user accounts must be configured to require a valid client certificate. If you're creating a new user:

CREATE USER alice IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY AS 'CN=alice';
GRANT CREATE SESSION TO alice;

Step 4/6. Configure and Start the Database Service

Install and configure Teleport where you will run the Teleport Database Service:

Use the appropriate commands for your environment to install your package:

Teleport Edition

Download Teleport's PGP public key

sudo curl https://apt.releases.teleport.dev/gpg \-o /usr/share/keyrings/teleport-archive-keyring.asc

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport APT repository for v15. You'll need to update this

file for each major release of Teleport.

echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/teleport-archive-keyring.asc] \https://apt.releases.teleport.dev/${ID?} ${VERSION_CODENAME?} stable/v15" \| sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/teleport.list > /dev/null

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install teleport-ent

For FedRAMP/FIPS-compliant installations, install the teleport-ent-fips package instead:

sudo apt-get install teleport-ent-fips

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport YUM repository for v15. You'll need to update this

file for each major release of Teleport.

First, get the major version from $VERSION_ID so this fetches the correct

package version.

VERSION_ID=$(echo $VERSION_ID | grep -Eo "^[0-9]+")
sudo yum install -y yum-utils
sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo "$(rpm --eval "https://yum.releases.teleport.dev/$ID/$VERSION_ID/Teleport/%{_arch}/stable/v15/teleport.repo")"
sudo yum install teleport-ent

Tip: Add /usr/local/bin to path used by sudo (so 'sudo tctl users add' will work as per the docs)

echo "Defaults secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin" > /etc/sudoers.d/secure_path

For FedRAMP/FIPS-compliant installations, install the teleport-ent-fips package instead:

sudo yum install teleport-ent-fips

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport Zypper repository for v15. You'll need to update this

file for each major release of Teleport.

First, get the OS major version from $VERSION_ID so this fetches the correct

package version.

VERSION_ID=$(echo $VERSION_ID | grep -Eo "^[0-9]+")

Use zypper to add the teleport RPM repo

sudo zypper addrepo --refresh --repo $(rpm --eval "https://zypper.releases.teleport.dev/$ID/$VERSION_ID/Teleport/%{_arch}/stable/cloud/teleport-zypper.repo")
sudo yum install teleport-ent

Tip: Add /usr/local/bin to path used by sudo (so 'sudo tctl users add' will work as per the docs)

echo "Defaults secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin" > /etc/sudoers.d/secure_path

For FedRAMP/FIPS-compliant installations, install the teleport-ent-fips package instead:

sudo yum install teleport-ent-fips

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport YUM repository for v15. You'll need to update this

file for each major release of Teleport.

First, get the major version from $VERSION_ID so this fetches the correct

package version.

VERSION_ID=$(echo $VERSION_ID | grep -Eo "^[0-9]+")

Use the dnf config manager plugin to add the teleport RPM repo

sudo dnf config-manager --add-repo "$(rpm --eval "https://yum.releases.teleport.dev/$ID/$VERSION_ID/Teleport/%{_arch}/stable/v15/teleport.repo")"

Install teleport

sudo dnf install teleport-ent

Tip: Add /usr/local/bin to path used by sudo (so 'sudo tctl users add' will work as per the docs)

echo "Defaults secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin" > /etc/sudoers.d/secure_path

For FedRAMP/FIPS-compliant installations, install the teleport-ent-fips package instead:

sudo dnf install teleport-ent-fips

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport Zypper repository.

First, get the OS major version from $VERSION_ID so this fetches the correct

package version.

VERSION_ID=$(echo $VERSION_ID | grep -Eo "^[0-9]+")

Use Zypper to add the teleport RPM repo

sudo zypper addrepo --refresh --repo $(rpm --eval "https://zypper.releases.teleport.dev/$ID/$VERSION_ID/Teleport/%{_arch}/stable/v15/teleport-zypper.repo")

Install teleport

sudo zypper install teleport-ent

For FedRAMP/FIPS-compliant installations, install the teleport-ent-fips package instead:

sudo zypper install teleport-ent-fips

In the example commands below, update $SYSTEM_ARCH with the appropriate value (amd64, arm64, or arm). All example commands using this variable will update after one is filled out.

curl https://cdn.teleport.dev/teleport-ent-v15.2.2-linux-$SYSTEM_ARCH-bin.tar.gz.sha256

<checksum> <filename>

curl -O https://cdn.teleport.dev/teleport-ent-v15.2.2-linux-$SYSTEM_ARCH-bin.tar.gz
shasum -a 256 teleport-ent-v15.2.2-linux-$SYSTEM_ARCH-bin.tar.gz

Verify that the checksums match

tar -xvf teleport-ent-v15.2.2-linux-$SYSTEM_ARCH-bin.tar.gz
cd teleport-ent
sudo ./install

For FedRAMP/FIPS-compliant installations of Teleport Enterprise, package URLs will be slightly different:

curl https://cdn.teleport.dev/teleport-ent-v15.2.2-linux-$SYSTEM_ARCH-fips-bin.tar.gz.sha256

<checksum> <filename>

curl -O https://cdn.teleport.dev/teleport-ent-v15.2.2-linux-$SYSTEM_ARCH-fips-bin.tar.gz
shasum -a 256 teleport-ent-v15.2.2-linux-$SYSTEM_ARCH-fips-bin.tar.gz

Verify that the checksums match

tar -xvf teleport-ent-v15.2.2-linux-$SYSTEM_ARCH-fips-bin.tar.gz
cd teleport-ent
sudo ./install

Add the Teleport repository to your repository list:

Download Teleport's PGP public key

sudo curl https://apt.releases.teleport.dev/gpg \-o /usr/share/keyrings/teleport-archive-keyring.asc

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport APT repository for cloud.

echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/teleport-archive-keyring.asc] \https://apt.releases.teleport.dev/${ID?} ${VERSION_CODENAME?} stable/cloud" \| sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/teleport.list > /dev/null

Provide your Teleport domain to query the latest compatible Teleport version

export TELEPORT_DOMAIN=example.teleport.com
export TELEPORT_VERSION="$(curl https://$TELEPORT_DOMAIN/v1/webapi/automaticupgrades/channel/default/version | sed 's/v//')"

Update the repo and install Teleport and the Teleport updater

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install "teleport-ent=$TELEPORT_VERSION" teleport-ent-updater

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport YUM repository for cloud.

First, get the OS major version from $VERSION_ID so this fetches the correct

package version.

VERSION_ID=$(echo $VERSION_ID | grep -Eo "^[0-9]+")
sudo yum install -y yum-utils
sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo "$(rpm --eval "https://yum.releases.teleport.dev/$ID/$VERSION_ID/Teleport/%{_arch}/stable/cloud/teleport-yum.repo")"

Provide your Teleport domain to query the latest compatible Teleport version

export TELEPORT_DOMAIN=example.teleport.com
export TELEPORT_VERSION="$(curl https://$TELEPORT_DOMAIN/v1/webapi/automaticupgrades/channel/default/version | sed 's/v//')"

Install Teleport and the Teleport updater

sudo yum install "teleport-ent-$TELEPORT_VERSION" teleport-ent-updater

Tip: Add /usr/local/bin to path used by sudo (so 'sudo tctl users add' will work as per the docs)

echo "Defaults secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin" > /etc/sudoers.d/secure_path

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport YUM repository for cloud.

First, get the OS major version from $VERSION_ID so this fetches the correct

package version.

VERSION_ID=$(echo $VERSION_ID | grep -Eo "^[0-9]+")

Use the dnf config manager plugin to add the teleport RPM repo

sudo dnf config-manager --add-repo "$(rpm --eval "https://yum.releases.teleport.dev/$ID/$VERSION_ID/Teleport/%{_arch}/stable/cloud/teleport-yum.repo")"

Provide your Teleport domain to query the latest compatible Teleport version

export TELEPORT_DOMAIN=example.teleport.com
export TELEPORT_VERSION="$(curl https://$TELEPORT_DOMAIN/v1/webapi/automaticupgrades/channel/default/version | sed 's/v//')"

Install Teleport and the Teleport updater

sudo dnf install "teleport-ent-$TELEPORT_VERSION" teleport-ent-updater

Tip: Add /usr/local/bin to path used by sudo (so 'sudo tctl users add' will work as per the docs)

echo "Defaults secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin" > /etc/sudoers.d/secure_path

Source variables about OS version

source /etc/os-release

Add the Teleport Zypper repository for cloud.

First, get the OS major version from $VERSION_ID so this fetches the correct

package version.

VERSION_ID=$(echo $VERSION_ID | grep -Eo "^[0-9]+")

Use Zypper to add the teleport RPM repo

sudo zypper addrepo --refresh --repo $(rpm --eval "https://zypper.releases.teleport.dev/$ID/$VERSION_ID/Teleport/%{_arch}/stable/cloud/teleport-zypper.repo")

Provide your Teleport domain to query the latest compatible Teleport version

export TELEPORT_DOMAIN=example.teleport.com
export TELEPORT_VERSION="$(curl https://$TELEPORT_DOMAIN/v1/webapi/automaticupgrades/channel/default/version | sed 's/v//')"

Install Teleport and the Teleport updater

sudo zypper install "teleport-ent-$TELEPORT_VERSION" teleport-ent-updater

Before installing a teleport binary with a version besides v15, read our compatibility rules to ensure that the binary is compatible with Teleport Enterprise Cloud.

Teleport uses Semantic Versioning. Version numbers include a major version, minor version, and patch version, separated by dots. When running multiple teleport binaries within a cluster, the following rules apply:

  • Patch and minor versions are always compatible, for example, any 8.0.1 component will work with any 8.0.3 component and any 8.1.0 component will work with any 8.3.0 component.
  • Servers support clients that are one major version behind, but do not support clients that are on a newer major version. For example, an 8.x.x Proxy Service instance is compatible with 7.x.x agents and 7.x.x tsh, but we don't guarantee that a 9.x.x agent will work with an 8.x.x Proxy Service instance. This also means you must not attempt to upgrade from 6.x.x straight to 8.x.x. You must upgrade to 7.x.x first.
  • Proxy Service instances and agents do not support Auth Service instances that are on an older major version, and will fail to connect to older Auth Service instances by default. You can override version checks by passing --skip-version-check when starting agents and Proxy Service instances.

On the host where you will run the Teleport Database Service, start Teleport with the appropriate configuration.

Note that a single Teleport process can run multiple different services, for example multiple Database Service agents as well as the SSH Service or Application Service. The step below will overwrite an existing configuration file, so if you're running multiple services add --output=stdout to print the config in your terminal, and manually adjust /etc/teleport.yaml.

Generate a configuration file at /etc/teleport.yaml for the Database Service:

sudo teleport db configure create \ -o file \ --token=/tmp/token \ --proxy=teleport.example.com:443 \ --name=oracle \ --protocol=oracle \ --uri=oracle.example.com:2484 \ --labels=env=dev
sudo teleport db configure create \ -o file \ --token=/tmp/token \ --proxy=mytenant.teleport.sh:443 \ --name=oracle \ --protocol=oracle \ --uri=oracle.example.com:2484 \ --labels=env=dev

Configure the Teleport Database Service to start automatically when the host boots up by creating a systemd service for it. The instructions depend on how you installed the Teleport Database Service.

On the host where you will run the Teleport Database Service, enable and start Teleport:

sudo systemctl enable teleport
sudo systemctl start teleport

On the host where you will run the Teleport Database Service, create a systemd service configuration for Teleport, enable the Teleport service, and start Teleport:

sudo teleport install systemd -o /etc/systemd/system/teleport.service
sudo systemctl enable teleport
sudo systemctl start teleport

You can check the status of the Teleport Database Service with systemctl status teleport and view its logs with journalctl -fu teleport.

Teleport provides Helm charts for installing the Teleport Database Service in Kubernetes Clusters.

Set up the Teleport Helm repository.

Allow Helm to install charts that are hosted in the Teleport Helm repository:

helm repo add teleport https://charts.releases.teleport.dev

Update the cache of charts from the remote repository so you can upgrade to all available releases:

helm repo update

Install the Teleport Kube Agent into your Kubernetes Cluster with the Teleport Database Service configuration.

JOIN_TOKEN=$(cat /tmp/token)
helm install teleport-kube-agent teleport/teleport-kube-agent \ --create-namespace \ --namespace teleport-agent \ --set roles=db \ --set proxyAddr=teleport.example.com:443 \ --set authToken=${JOIN_TOKEN?} \ --set "databases[0].name=oracle" \ --set "databases[0].uri=oracle.example.com:2484" \ --set "databases[0].protocol=oracle" \ --set "labels.env=dev" \ --version 15.2.2

Install the Teleport Kube Agent into your Kubernetes Cluster with the Teleport Database Service configuration.

JOIN_TOKEN=$(cat /tmp/token)
helm install teleport-kube-agent teleport/teleport-kube-agent \ --create-namespace \ --namespace teleport-agent \ --set roles=db \ --set proxyAddr=mytenant.teleport.sh:443 \ --set authToken=${JOIN_TOKEN?} \ --set "databases[0].name=oracle" \ --set "databases[0].uri=oracle.example.com:2484" \ --set "databases[0].protocol=oracle" \ --set "labels.env=dev" \ --version 15.2.2

Make sure that the Teleport agent pod is running. You should see one teleport-kube-agent pod with a single ready container:

kubectl -n teleport-agent get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGEteleport-kube-agent-0 1/1 Running 0 32s
Tip

A single Teleport process can run multiple services, for example multiple Database Service instances as well as other services such the SSH Service or Application Service.

Step 5/6. (Optional) Configure Teleport to pull audit logs from Oracle Audit Trail

Teleport can pull audit logs from Oracle Audit Trail. In order to enable this feature, you will need to configure Oracle Audit Trail and create a dedicated Teleport user that will be used to fetch audit events from Oracle Audit Trail.

Create an internal Oracle teleport user that will fetch audit events from Oracle Audit Trail:

CREATE USER teleport IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY AS 'CN=teleport';
GRANT CREATE SESSION TO teleport;
GRANT SELECT ON dba_audit_trail TO teleport;
GRANT SELECT ON V_$SESSION TO teleport;

Enable the table in Oracle Audit Trail:

ALTER system SET audit_trail=db,extended scope=spfile;

Restart your Oracle instance to propagate audit trail changes.

Enable Oracle auditing for the alice user:

AUDIT ALL STATEMENTS by alice BY access;

You must enable auditing for each Teleport user that will be used to connect to Oracle. Additionally you can create a different audit policy for each user.

Configure the Teleport Database Service to pull audit logs from Oracle Audit Trail:

db_service:
  enabled: "yes"
  databases:
  - name: "oracle"
    protocol: "oracle"
    uri: oracle.example.com:2484"
    oracle:
      audit_user: "teleport"
kind: db
version: v3
metadata:
  name: oracle
spec:
  protocol: "oracle"
  uri: "oracle.example.com:2484"
  oracle:
    audit_user: "teleport"

Teleport doesn't clean up audit trail events from Oracle Audit Trail. Make sure to configure an Oracle Audit Trail cleanup policy to avoid running out of disk space.

Step 6/6. Connect

Once the Database Service has joined the cluster, log in to see the available databases:

tsh login --proxy=mytenant.teleport.sh --user=alice
tsh db ls

Name Description Allowed Users Labels Connect

------ -------------- ------------- ------- -------

oracle Oracle Example [*] env=dev

Connect to the database:

tsh db connect --db-user=alice --db-name=XE oracle

SQLcl: Release 22.4 Production on Fri Mar 31 20:48:02 2023

Copyright (c) 1982, 2023, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to:

Oracle Database 21c Express Edition Release 21.0.0.0.0 - Production

Version 21.3.0.0.0

SQL>

To log out of the database and remove credentials:

Remove credentials for a particular database instance.

tsh db logout oracle

Remove credentials for all database instances.

tsh db logout

Next steps

  • Take a look at the YAML configuration reference.