Redis is an in-memory data store that stores data in key-value pairs. It’s primarily used as a cache for quick data access, as a database, and as a message broker.
Redis doesn’t have a default authentication setup in place exposing it to security vulnerabilities, which if exploited could potentially affect the infrastructure of the entire organization. These security vulnerabilities are what make securing your Redis database so important.
This article takes you through the steps and procedures for securing your Redis database using standard practices.
Why Do I Need to Secure My Redis Database?
This section expands on the use cases that highlight the importance of securing your database. Due to a low-security setup by default, your data is accessible to hackers over the internet. This section looks at some reasons why securing your Redis database is important, including low-security defaults, personally identifiable information (PII) in cache, and the fact it’s a common target for hackers.
Redis is a popular choice for in-memory data storage, but it lacks built-in security features. The absence of a proper access control system allows unauthorized individuals to create non-encrypted passwords and altering of keys.
Personally Identifiable Information in Cache
The cache can potentially hold your PII. This raises numerous security risks, leaving your data exposed to hackers and cybercriminals. Learn more about how having PII in cache can make your organization vulnerable.
A Common Target for Hackers
Due to the widespread use of Redis, the number of attacks and threats to Redis databases has grown exponentially. Research by Imperva found that seventy-five percent of “open” Redis servers were infected with malware.
These are just some examples of why a multi-layer security posture is required for optimal functioning of your Redis database. There are multiple ways you can secure your Redis database, which are covered in the sections ahead.
How to Secure a Redis Data Store
This section covers the details of securing your Redis data store on three levels: network, transport, and database. You’ll also read about some additional security standards and methods for securing the Redis database.
Network security ensures that only the trusted nodes connect to your database in the network. This section covers some of the methods for securing your Redis database on the network level, including
iptables, UFW, protected mode, and setting up IP restrictions.
iptables is a firewall program that’s built for Linux and handles the monitoring of traffic in your network.
By default, the Redis database accepts the connections on port 6379. You can utilize
iptables to accept traffic only from a specified IP address; this helps protect you from security threats.
Here’s how to use
# iptables to accept traffic from a specific IP address iptables -A INPUT -s <ip_address> -p tcp --dport <port_number> -j ACCEPT
Redis Protected Mode
Whenever you’re using Redis in the cloud, it’s better to enable protected mode for enhanced security. Protected mode ensures that the database only responds to the loopback address and generates an error as a reply to all the nodes connecting from other IP addresses.
To enable protected mode, the steps are as follows:
# Step 01: Navigate to your redis.conf file # Step 02: Uncomment the following line in the config file Protected-mode yes
Redis Enterprise Cloud provides two additional network security features: IP restrictions and virtual private clouds (VPCs). IP restrictions are almost the same as
To enable them, navigate to Admin Console > View Database. Click edit, then Access Control & Security. Turn on Source IP/Subnet and add the required IP addresses.
Similarly, you can set up VPCs in Redis Enterprise Cloud.
Redis TLS: Transport-Level Security
Transport-level security (TLS) ensures the encryption of data for secure transportation. You can set up the TLS-enabled Redis cloud to protect your Redis database. This section covers the steps needed to set up the TLS cryptographic protocol, along with the authentication mechanism.
TLS-Enabled Redis Cloud
You can set up the TLS cryptographic protocol and client authentication in Redis Cloud. Client authentication requires clients to present an authentic client certificate before giving them access to resources.
First, you need to enable the TLS and client authentication. For that, navigate to Admin Console > Databases. Select your database and click edit. Go to Access Control & Security and enable SSL Client Authentication > Enforce client authentication. Provide the X.509 certificate or click Generate Client Certificate. The download will start. Next, click Update.
Once you’ve downloaded the certificates, you can connect to the Redis Cloud using the following command:
# Connecting to TLS-enabled Redis Cloud redis-cli -h redis.123.cloud.rlrcp.com -p 16257 --tls --cacert redislabs_ca.pem --cert redislabs_user.crt --key redislabs_user_private.key
You can learn more about TLS-enabled Redis Cloud.
Database-level security defines the users’ roles and their privileges in the database. In this section, you’ll learn about the standard practices of securing your database, including giving access only to Redis users, running the Redis database as an unprivileged user, and setting up a stronger password to avoid unauthorized users accessing your Redis database.
Allowing Access Only to Redis Users
By default, the primary access to data folders lies with the Redis user and the secondary access with the Redis group. For improved security, it’s important to allow only Redis users access to the Redis data directory.
You can use the following command to ensure that access is limited to Redis users:
# Allowing only the Redis user to access the Redis data directory sudo chmod 700 <path_of_data_directory>
Running the Redis Database as an Unprivileged User
There are high security risks associated with running your Redis database as the root user, because if a cybercriminal hacks a session where the root user is active, all the permissions to alter data will be granted.
Therefore, to protect the database from security risks, it’s recommended that you run your Redis database as an unprivileged user, which is a user with restricted permissions.
Setting Up a Stronger Password
You can also secure your Redis database by setting up a stronger password instead of the default one. The change of password needs to be made in the
redis.conf file, using the following steps:
# Step 01: Open the config file with edit permissions sudo nano <path_to_Redis_config_file> # Step 02: Change the required password requirepass <new_password> # Step 03: Save the password and restart the system sudo systemctl restart redis.service # Step 04: Run Redis CLI redis-cli # Step 05: Verify that the password has been set auth password
Learn more about making a secure password for Redis.
By default, there’s no authentication system in the Redis database. Therefore, the
AUTH command is utilized to set up authentication so that only trusted users can access the server.
The server compares the password entered during the time of connection, and if it matches with the one in the config file, it accepts the commands from the node. You can set up the
AUTH command with the following steps:
# For versions before Redis 6 # Step 01: Setup Authentication AUTH PASSWORD # Step 02: Enter the password CONFIG SET requirepass "<your_password>" # Step 03: Verify the Authentication AUTH <your_password> # You should receive an OK message from server upon successful connection # For versions from Redis 6 AUTH <your_username> <your_password>
You can read more about the
Renaming Common Commands
There are some common commands in the Redis database that could be dangerous if executed by an unauthorized user. For example, a single
FLUSHALL command can erase all your data.
To avoid misuse and enhance security, you can rename these commands.
The following are the steps for renaming common commands:
# Step 01: Access the config file as an admin user # The path to redis.conf file is usually /etc/redis/redis.conf sudo nano <path_to_config_file> # Step 02: Rename the commands as per your choice rename-command CONFIG <new_name_for_config> rename-command SHUTDOWN <new_name_for_shutdown> # Step 03: Save the recent changes to the editor sudo systemctl restart redis.service # Step 04: Start the Redis CLI redis-cli # Step 05: Test the authorization controls with the renamed commands
Disabling Dangerous Commands
The previous section covered the details of renaming the common commands. However, you can also disable the vulnerable commands by setting them to empty strings. The syntax is as follows:
# Disabling the dangerous commands in the Redis database rename-command FLUSHALL "" rename-command FLUSHDB "" # Save changes to the editor and test the commands
Managing User Permissions
Your Redis database allows you to set user permissions and access, which can make your setup more secure. For this purpose, the
ACL command is utilized.
The following is the generic command to achieve this:
# Generic command for setting up user permissions ACL SETUSER <user_name> on [email protected] [email protected] ><user_password> ~*
The above command allows all permissions to the user and then removes all commands tagged as dangerous.
There’s a whole list of permissions offered by the Redis database; you can learn more about the command categories in the Redis documentation.
The following is an example of setting user permissions:
# List the default permissions of the user ACL LIST # Allow the permissions to the user (The user has a password and can access key names starting with ‘cached’ using the GET command ) ACL SETUSER <username> on > <password> ~cached:* +get
You can also find out how to create a user and allot them permissions using the
Your Redis database provides distinct encryption at rest options based on deployment method. We’ll review three of these: Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and AWS.
Encryption at Rest in Google Cloud Platform
All the data in the Redis database in GCP is encrypted by default. Therefore, no additional steps or methods are required for enabling the encryption at rest. Navigate to encryption at rest in Google Cloud to learn more about it.
Encryption at Rest in Microsoft Azure
Similar to GCP, the data in Redis Cloud deployed on Microsoft Azure is encrypted at rest by default. Navigate to encryption at rest in Azure to learn more about it.
Encryption at Rest in AWS
You can set up encryption at rest in AWS when creating flexible plans. For that, the steps are:
Create a new AWS subscription by clicking Create under the Flexible plan option. Once the subscription is created, click on Advanced Options and enable Set Persistent Storage Encryption.
To find out more, navigate to encryption at rest on AWS.
You can set up multifactor authentication (MFA) in Redis Enterprise Cloud. You’ll need your username, password, and an authentication code to access the account.
The steps for the setup of MFA are: Log in to your Redis Enterprise Cloud account. Click Name > User Profile > Multi-Factor Authentication > Activate Now. Enter the mobile number and confirm the code by verification message.
The Optimal Method to Secure Your Redis Database
In this article we looked into numerous methods of securing your Redis database. However, you can significantly simplify the process of securing your databases using Teleport Database Access.
Teleport brings together the authentication, authorization, auditing, and connectivity of cloud applications in one place. With Teleport, you don’t need to worry about security practices, as it handles the complete security of the tech stack by default.
You can find out more in this Teleport introductory video, through GitHub code, and in the documentation about securing your self-hosted Redis database using Teleport Database Access or if securing a Redis Cluster.
Redis is a popular choice as a database, cache, and message broker. However, its default security settings are leave the database quite vulnerable. In this article, we covered numerous methods of hardening the Redis database on three levels: network, transport, and database.
We also looked into the additional security procedures like the
AUTH feature, renaming of common commands, managing user permissions, encryption options, and multifactor authentication.
You can simplify the process of securing your Redis database by utilizing Teleport, which is an identity-aware and multi-protocol proxy, bringing together all the aspects of securing database access in one platform.
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