Authorization vulnerabilities allow malicious users to perform unwanted actions or access resources that are deemed protected otherwise. Authorization vulnerabilities are one of the most widely found vulnerabilities in web applications. The OWASP top 10 list of web application security risks listed broken access control vulnerabilities as the number one risk in 2021, so understanding authorization vulnerabilities is an important topic for application security engineers.
Before we dive into authorization vulnerabilities, let's first explore privileges further since most of the vulnerabilities related to authorization are associated with poor privilege management within software applications.
Privileges are sets of permissions assigned to a user that define what actions a user can perform (e.g., read, write, execute). Although it sounds simple to understand, it isn't easy to implement privileges securely. Most of the vulnerabilities related to authorization are due to insecure privilege management. But why are they so hard to implement correctly? As application scope and feature sets grow, so does the complexity of roles and privileges. Security features are usually stitched in later in the application development process, making logical authorization flaws inevitable.
Privilege escalation vulnerabilities
Most authorization vulnerabilities can be described as a form of privilege escalation. A privilege escalation occurs when a user can access privileges not explicitly assigned to them. Privilege escalation can be broadly categorized into horizontal privilege escalation and vertical privilege escalation.
Horizontal privilege escalation: Horizontal privilege escalation occurs when a normal user can access other users' resources with similar privileges.
Vertical privilege escalation: Vertical privilege escalation occurs when a normal user can access administrative privileges.
Now let's explore 7 common authorization vulnerabilities that allow unauthorized access or unauthorized action to protected resources.
1. Insecure direct object reference
Insecure direct object reference (IDOR) occurs when software allows a user to access resources or perform actions without adequately verifying the resource owner. IDOR is a notorious vulnerability commonly found in web applications.
Exploiting IDOR vulnerability
For demonstration purposes, lets create a hypothetical organization named unicornprofilebook.com. Unicornprofilebook.com is a social networking web application that allows users to upload selfie pictures and share them with friends and family. Unicornprofilebook.com has three users named Alice, Bob and Carol.
In unicornprofilebook.com, the selfie pictures uploaded by users are given a unique identifier (Id) on the server. User Alice has uploaded 3
pictures, and the pictures are assigned with Id
3. User Bob has uploaded 5 pictures, and the pictures are assigned with Id
8. User carol has uploaded 2 pictures, and the pictures are assigned with an Id
Alice and Bob have privileges to upload and delete pictures. But Carol's privilege only permits to upload pictures and not delete them.
When Carol tries to delete her picture from unicornprofilebook.com, her request will be denied as she does not have the privilege to delete them. This is working as expected since only Alice and Bob have this privilege. When Alice deletes her picture from unicornprofilebook.com, an HTTP request is sent as:
When an IDOR vulnerability exists, Alice can send a similar HTTP request to unicornprofilebook.com but with a guessed or prediscovered Id of Bob's picture and have Bob's image deleted from unicornprofilebook.com. An example below:
So IDOR, in this case, is that the application has built-in authorization checks for privileges but fails to verify the owner of the resource. Hence, Alice can not only delete her pictures but also can delete Bob's picture.
2. Unprotected resources
Unprotected resources are usually a result of missing or misconfigured authorization checks in web applications. It is an infamous practice among many organizations where URLs of admin interfaces, for example, are obfuscated so that other normal users could not easily find them but not protected with authorization, a practice known as security through obscurity. Another example is when an FTP server would be accessible without authentication as an anonymous user.
Exploiting the unprotected resources vulnerability
Due to lack of time for a proper access control implementation, developers of unicornprofilebook.com thought only to obfuscate the admin page and keep them under URL:
This is a classic example of unprotected resources. Although it may seem that the random characters at the end of the URL will be hard to guess by unauthorized users, this URL may be discovered using web scrapers, web spiders, or when malicious users have access to web traffic logs. Another example of unprotected resources includes the insecure practice of opening sensitive Google docs to organization-wide view/edit access.
3. Maintaining client-side authorization state
The authentication and authorization state should always be maintained and verified on the server side. Web application developers sometimes manage authorization states on the client-side, which malicious users can easily tamper with to gain unauthorized access. The client-side authorization state management variation includes maintaining state in HTTP cookies, URL paths or parameters, JSON web tokens (JWT), request referrer header, or request origin header.
Exploiting client-side authorization state vulnerability
Let's take an example from our unicornprofilebook.com application. Besides Alice, Bob and Carol, the application has one administrative
privilege account used by Ted. Ted is allowed to delete pictures of every user. But the application stores the user privilege on the client
session cookie as
role=admin. Even if the cookie is protected with HttpOnly cookie, this can
be easily tampered with using an intercepting proxy such as OWASP zap, or burp
Although many modern software developers are well educated on this type of vulnerability, it is common for developers to misunderstand the risk when developing native desktop applications. The general assumption is that "it is harder to intercept traffic of desktop applications when compared with web applications." But this is not true, and even the client-server communication of desktop applications can be easily intercepted and tampered with by using an interception proxy such as mitmproxy
4. Directory traversal
Directory or path traversal vulnerabilities allow reading web server files with sensitive information which are not directly accessible and authorized to users. Let's see how with our hypothetical app unicornprofilebook.com. This app fetches a user image with the following URL:
If the unicornprofilebook.com is vulnerable to directory traversal, a malicious user can craft a request such that the server's
file may spit out in the response.
How does this work? A vulnerable implementation will not sanitize user input and will pass this value to the file reader function of the
unicornprofilebook.com application. If the file reader function has access to
/etc/passwd file, it will read that file and return its
content in the response. This example of directory traversal by modifying URL is only one of the ways to exploit the vulnerability and can
be executed within any part of an HTTP request, including headers, cookies and request bodies, and API endpoints. A proper user input
validation is the first step to counter these types of vulnerabilities.
5. Misconfigured access policies
Defining security policies is always a complex task. Take an example of creating a role in AWS IAM. AWS offers more than 200 services. There are literally hundreds of combinations that can be applied to create a role. As the complexity grows, it becomes a rational (yet insecure) choice to create a role with full access than trying to assign the least privilege in most cases.
Additionally, misconfigured Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) headers are becoming a common vulnerability in modern single page applications which allows for API access from unauthorized sources.
6. Bypassable policies
Besides misconfigured and insecure policy creation, some software implements authorization policies that can be bypassed in certain scenarios. For example, policies based on user location, web browser types, or device type. These are all easy to bypass. Location-based authorization can be bypassed using a VPN or proxy service, and user agents can be easily updated in modern browsers or by building a custom HTTP client.
7. Privilege escalation by binary exploitations
The above examples discussed how a user could tamper with HTTP requests, API requests, or HTTP client local storage to exploit insecure authorization implementations. Besides tampering with HTTPS protocols, a set of binary exploitation vulnerabilities exists that exploits programs or operating system flaws to escalate privileges in operating systems.
For example, a recently discovered Dirty Pipe Privilege Escalation Vulnerability in Linux (CVE-2022-0847) allows a normal user or process to overwrite data into arbitrary files, including files owned by root users. Or the PwnKit vulnerability, which lets the exploitation of a SUID-root program allow for a full privilege escalation as a root user in Linux. These two are just examples, and there are many such known vulnerabilities allowing for privilege escalation and authorization bypass implemented at the operating system level.
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The vulnerabilities discussed in this post affect web applications, API services, mobile applications, desktop applications and web servers. These vulnerabilities usually go undetected with automated security scanners and require careful research by security researchers. A well-scoped security audit or penetration testing of software applications helps detect these types of vulnerabilities.
Perhaps the biggest threat related to authorization is the employees misusing their assigned privileges. These users are categorized as insider threats in cybersecurity terminology. Proper privilege access management with continuous monitoring of authorized actions is important to counter insider threats. Teleport, an open-source unified access plane, offers modern privilege access management capabilities to counter insider threats related to cloud infrastructure access. Learn how Teleport works.
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