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Teleport Blog - SSH Kubernetes:\ Permissions and Dynamic Workloads - May 8, 2017

SSH Kubernetes:\ Permissions and Dynamic Workloads


In the previous article of this series about managing Kubernetes, we explained how SSH clients can be authenticated using SSH certificates as opposed to simple public keys or passwords.

In this post, we'll take the next step and use SSH certificates to implement a simple and effective role-based access control, where SSH users are granted access NOT to specific servers, but to specific data or workloads. This style of access control is more compatible with the dynamic nature of datacenter-level work scheduling.

This blog post will teach you:

  • How to configure Kubernetes users to SSH into servers using Kubernetes labels instead of hostnames or IP addresses.
  • How to restrict SSH permissions based on Kubernetes labels and user identities.

Like this:

ssh admin@role=db-master

Where db-master is a Kubernetes label dynamically applied to whatever machine is running the master PostgreSQL instance.

Why SSH into Clusters?

If you believe that you don't need to ever "SSH into a box", perhaps this article isn't for you. The promise of simply throwing (scheduling) your code onto an intelligent "mainframe" and have it run by itself is appealing, but the need to SSH into a machine is still a common requirement, even if just for automation tooling.

Sample Use Case

Suppose you are in charge of a small ops team which is tasked with the job of managing a Kubernetes application called "Cookbook". This application consists of two types of Kubernetes pods:

  • Worker: these handle HTTP requests from the clients and provide CRUD access to the database of recipes. They are stateless, numerous, cheap and can be easily moved around.

  • Database: these pods are responsible for actually storing the recipes, manage backups, restore, etc. Let's say PostgreSQL is used for it.

Your ops team is composed of only two people: Elliot and Darlene. Both are capable of administering the workers but only Darlene knows how to manage the PostgreSQL database.

Both Darlene and Elliot can assume the role of worker-admin but only Darlene can assume the role of dba. Given his lack of knowledge, perhaps you don't even want to let Elliot access servers where "Database" pods are running.

This requires connecting SSH access permissions with Kubernetes. We are using Teleport Enterprise, the commercial version of our open source SSH server, for this tutorial.

Lets see how can this be done.

Access Follows Data

First, we need to make sure that Darlene or Elliot lose access to everything if they quit the organization. We covered how to do this in the previous article: by using auto-expiring certificates.

Wouldn't it be convenient and more secure, if Darlene and Elliot would gain or lose SSH access to a server based on where Kubernetes schedules the database to run? This way if a database pod is scheduled to run on server "A", Darlene gains access to it (but not Elliot) and both of them would be able to SSH into any server running a worker pod.

The access should be dynamically granted/revoked to servers based on the workloads they are running.

For this to work we need the following to happen:

  • SSH Certificate Authority (CA) needs to know that Darlene is dba.
  • The dba role needs to be included in Darlene's certificate.
  • The servers with "database" pods must only trust users with certificates that include dba role.

Lets see how this can be done.

Labels = Access

Teleport supports the ability to apply labels to any server it's running on, regardless of either a node is managed by Kubernetes or not. Now we need to expose Kubernetes labels to become recognizable as SSH "hostnames".

For this we'll use a Teleport label command. A "label command" is a CLI command matched to a label. A Teleport node will execute at a given frequency and the standard output of that command will become a value for the label, for example:

# snippet from /etc/teleport.yaml
    # teleport daemon will execute /usr/bin/readrole command every minute and
    # the output of it will be assigned to role
    - name: role
      command: ["/usr/bin/readrole", "--label=role"]
      period: 1m0s

You will have to implement readrole command using a programming language of your choice, in this example readrole command takes a --label argument, queries Kubernetes API for the value of role label for the node it's running on and prints the output into stdout, like this:

# executed on DB master machine:
$ /usr/bin/readrole --label=role

# executed on a regular non-DB machine:
$ /usr/bin/readrole --label=role

With readrole present and configured to be a Teleport command label, let's check if the nodes are correctly reporting their labels into a Teleport cluster:

$ tsh ls
Node Name         Address               Labels
---------         -------               ------
worker-1.comp     role=worker
database-2.comp     role=db-master

So now you can SSH into a node which has role=db-master label:

$ tsh ssh root@role=db-master

Enforcing SSH Restrictions

Now, with Kubernetes labels working as SSH hostnames, how do we make sure that only the approved group of users can SSH into the server with db-master label?

We need to create a new SSH Role (lets call it "dba") in Teleport. Let's start by creating a Teleport Role description and saving it in a YAML file:

# Save it as dba.yaml
kind: role
version: v1
  name: dba
  # Admins can SSH as root into machines
  logins: [root]
  # Only admins can SSH into any instances labeled with 'db-maser' role:
    'role': 'db-master'

Add this role to Teleport Enterprise:

$ tctl upsert -f dba.yaml

And now only SSH users with dba role will be able to SSH into servers with db-master label, exactly what we wanted to accomplish.

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In this post you have learned how to collect Kubernetes labels for your nodes and report them into a Teleport Cluster, allowing you to SSH into the nodes using their labels instead of host names.

Additionally, you learned how to restrict SSH access to your servers to specific users based on its nodes' Kubernetes labels.

The end setup looks a bit clunky due to the need to implement an external label-reporting command but that's because Teleport is implemented without hard dependencies on Kubernetes and it's designed to work with any external infrastructure labeling scheme (like AWS).

For a more seamless integration, we have a CNCF certified Kubernetes distribution called Gravity which tightly integrates Teleport SSH underneath Kubernetes, among other things, which you may want to check out.


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PAM / Teleport